This information is designed to introduce the Bowdoin College Library's policies on copyright permissions for print and electronic reserves. For additional information about copyright for the Bowdoin community, please see Digital Copyright : Frequently Asked Questions/Best Practices and other resources listed on the College’s Copyright web site.
The collections of the Library are purchased for the nonprofit educational use of the Bowdoin community. The purpose of the Reserve system is to provide organized access to course-related materials through the application of restricted loan periods. Electronic reserves are an extension of the traditional course reserve model, a non-commercial venture for educational purposes only. The Library reserves the right to refuse a request to place material on print or electronic reserve if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the request would involve a violation of copyright law.
General Guidelines for Print and Electronic Reserves
Suggestions for further reading
Selected Books and Web Sites
|Procedures for placing materials on reserve: Print or Electronic
Contacts for Library Reserves
Contacts for Copyright Questions
For More Information on Copyright and College Policy
Bowdoin College Library adheres to the provisions of the United States Copyright Law (Title 17, USC, Sect. 101, et seq.). Section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976 addresses the concept of “Fair Use” which recognizes the needs of scholars and students to use copyrighted materials for educational purposes. The Library complies with U.S Copyright Law by considering and balancing the four Fair Use factors, listed below, for each item placed on reserve, if there is no license in place governing access to the material:
Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified in that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship or research, is not an infringement of copyright.
In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include—
- The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
- the nature of the copyrighted work;
- the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
- the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
The four-factor Fair Use test directs that libraries assess overall whether a use is fair by considering the balance among these factors. If Reserve material is found NOT to meet the Fair Use test, the Library will seek permission from the copyright holder, either through Copyright Clearance Center or by contacting the rightsholder directly. Electronic copying and scanning of copyright-protected works for library reserve systems are uninterpreted areas of the law which may be addressed by the courts or future revisions of the copyright law. Bowdoin College will monitor legal developments in this area.
To ensure compliance with copyright law, the Library will adhere to the following policies in the handling of print and electronic reserves:
If you have questions about Fair Use relating to a particular item, please contact Amy Heggie (x3173; )
The Library has several copyright handbooks on reserve, along with more than 100 Circulars published by the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress. These are listed under the course name of “Copyright.” Other copyright handbooks are found in the Reference collection. Selected publications are listed below, along with their location and call number. For a complete listing of the sources on reserve plus other library sources on copyright, do a Word search in the Library Catalog on copyright.
The College Bookstore has a supply of booklets entitled Questions and Answers on Copyright for the College Community, distributed by the National Association of College stores, Inc., and the Association of American Publishers. Contact the Bookstore for a copy of this informative booklet, or see the web version at http://www.nacs.org/toolsresources/cmip/copyright.aspx.
COPYRIGHT IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM [videorecording] : the impact of recent changes to U.S. copyright law. / presented by American Association of Law Libraries ... [et al.]. 1999
Main Libr Video KF2995 .C7 1999
THE COPYRIGHT PERMISSION AND LIBEL HANDBOOK: a step-by-step guide for writers, editors, and publishers.
Lloyd J. Jassin and Steven C. Schechter.
New York : Wiley, c1998
Main Ref KF2994 .J37 1998
THE COPYRIGHT PRIMER FOR LIBRARIANS AND EDUCATORS. 2nd ed.
Janis H. Bruwelheide.
Chicago: American Library Association; Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1995.
Main Libr Reserve 275
LIBRARIES AND COPYRIGHT: a guide to copyright law in the 1990s.
Laura N. Gasaway and Sarah K. Wiant.
Washington, DC : Special Libraries Association, c1994.
Main Library Reserve 279
LIBRARIES & COPYRIGHT LAW.
Arlene Bielefield and Lawrence Cheeseman.
New York : Neal-Schuman Publishers, c1993.
Main Ref KF3030.1 .B53 1993
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON COPYRIGHT FOR THE CAMPUS COMMUNITY
5th edition. Association of American University Professors, et al, 2002.
Main Libr Reserve 276
TECHNOLOGY AND COPYRIGHT LAW: a guidebook for the library, research, and teaching professions.
New York : Neal-Schuman Publishers, c1997.
Main Library Reserve 278
U.S. Copyright Office Home Page
The official government web site on copyright law.
Stanford University Library: Copyright and Fair Use
A thorough and respected copyright site with guidelines for members of Stanford University. Includes Primary Materials, Current Legislation, Cases and Issues, Resources on the Internet, and Overview of Copyright Law.
The UT System Crash Course in Copyright http://www.utsystem.edu/OGC/IntellectualProperty/cprtindx.htm
A comprehensive and practical guide to copyright matters, created to lead members of The University of Texas System through issues of Fair Use, Creating Multimedia, Copyright in the Digital Library, Copyright Management, Licensing Resources, Online Presentations, and much more. One of the most helpful and "user-friendly" of all copyright web sites.
Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States
A chart explaining how to determine whether a work is still protected under copyright law.
Amy Heggie, Circulation Supervisor, x3280,
Leanne Pander, Public Services Librarian, x3260,