Location: Bowdoin / Library / Special Collections & Archives / research-help / Citing Special Collections Materials

Citing Special Collections Materials

Laws of Bowdoin College
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s copy of the Laws of Bowdoin College
[detail]

[printable pdf version]

Full and accurate citations allow others to locate and refer to materials that you have consulted and quoted in your research and writing.  Although citation forms may differ slightly depending on the format of the information resource or the style manual that you follow in your discipline or scholarly community, citations all share common fundamental elements:

  • Author
  • Title (or other description)
  • Date
  • Source (publisher or repository)

Footnotes or Endnotes should be complete and specific in the first instance but may be abbreviated for subsequent references to that same work.  Parenthetical notes, which are inserted directly into the text, are usually abbreviated and refer to fuller bibliographical entries by a brief unique name and date—for details about parenthetical citations, please refer to an appropriate style manual.

Bibliographies, normally placed at the end of your work, describe fully all of the sources that you consulted but without specifying exactly where within a particular source you drew your information.

The following examples may help you in constructing notes and bibliographic entries. For all examples, if you use electronic versions of each resource type, add the URL that locates the electronic version at the end of the citation.  For further details about citations, and for links to style manuals that provide citation guidance, see Bowdoin’s “Academic Honesty and Plagiarism” website.

Books (complete):
  NOTE: Patricia M. Anderson, The Architecture of Bowdoin College (Brunswick, Me.: Bowdoin College
      Museum of Art, 1988), 24.
  BIBLIOG: Anderson, Patricia M. The Architecture of Bowdoin College. Brunswick, Me.: Bowdoin College
      Museum of Art, 1988.
Books (contributing chapter):
  NOTE
:  John Smith, “The Fun of It All,” in:  Joy and Heartache, ed. Joe Jones (Boston:  Humble Univ.
      Press, 1888), 324.
  BIBLIOG
:  Smith, John.  “The Fun of It All.”  In: Joy and Heartache, edited by Joe Jones, 321-333. 
      Boston:  Humble Univ. Press, 1888. 
Books (electronic version):
  NOTE:  Patricia M. Anderson, The Architecture of Bowdoin College (Brunswick, Me.:  Bowdoin College
      Museum of Art, 1988), 24. http://archive.org/details/architectureofbowd00ande.
  BIBLIOG:  Anderson, Patricia M. The Architecture of Bowdoin College.  Brunswick, Me.:  Bowdoin College
      Museum of Art, 1988. http://archive.org/details/architectureofbowd00ande.

Newspapers (unsigned article):
  NOTE:   “Let Us Have Our Work Better Done,” Bowdoin Orient, April 30, 1873.
  BIBLIOG
:  “Let Us Have Our Work Better Done.”  Bowdoin Orient, April 30, 1873.
Newspapers (signed regular column):

  NOTE
:   Jim Good, “Quit Whining,” How to Get Ahead, Muncie Free Press, September 12, 1906.
  BIBLIOG
:  Good, Jim.  “Quit Whining,” How to Get Ahead.  Muncie Free Press, September 12, 1906.
Newspapers (electronic version):

  NOTE
:   “Let Us Have Our Work Better Done,” Bowdoin Orient, April 30, 1873.
      http://archive.org/stream/bowdoinorient03bowd#page/n3/mode/2up
  BIBLIOG
:  “Let Us Have Our Work Better Done.”  Bowdoin Orient, April 30, 1873.
      http://archive.org/stream/bowdoinorient03bowd#page/n3/mode/2up

Journals:
  NOTE
:  Mary Contrary, “Raising Lambs for Fun and Profit,” Nursery Time 104, no. 2 (Fall 1922): 44.
  BIBLIOG
:  Contrary, Mary.  “Raising Lambs for Fun and Profit.” Nursery Time 104, no. 2 (Fall 1922): 33-45.
Journals (electronic version):
  NOTE:  Mary Contrary, “Raising Lambs for Fun and Profit,” Nursery Time 104, no. 2 (Fall 1922): 44.
      http://www.jstor.org/stable/4833433.
  BIBLIOG
:  Contrary, Mary.  “Raising Lambs for Fun and Profit.” Nursery Time 104, no. 2 (Fall 1922): 33-
      45. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4833433.

Interviews (published):
  NOTE
:  George J. Mitchell, interview by Andrea L’Hommedieu, May 10, 2011, George J. Mitchell Oral
      History Project, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, Me.
  BIBLIOG
:  Mitchell, George J.  Interview by Andrea L’Hommedieu, May 10, 2011.  George J. Mitchell Oral
      History Project.  Bowdoin College Library.  Brunswick, Me.  http://digitalcommons.bowdoin.edu/
      mitchelloralhistory/68/.
Interviews (informal/unpublished):

   NOTE:  John Smith (Class of 1954), in discussion with the author, October 2008.
   BIBLIOG: [customarily, informal interviews are not included in Bibliographies or Works Cited.]

Websites:
  NOTE
:  Pop-ups! They’re Not Just for Kids! Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, Bowdoin  College Library,
      accessed July 12, 2010.  http://library.bowdoin.edu/arch/exhibitions/popup/index.shtml.
  BIBLIOG
: Bowdoin College Library. Pop-ups! They’re Not Just for Kids!.  Accessed July 12, 2010. 
      http://library.bowdoin.edu/arch/exhibitions/popup/index.shtml.

Manuscripts and Archival records:
Citations for unpublished materials (e.g.: diaries, letters, reports, memoranda, literary drafts, meeting minutes, photographs, sound recordings) should follow this pattern:

[Author, identification of item, title of collection], George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections & Archives, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, Me. 

In a note, specify the item in detail; in a bibliography, refer more generally to the collection name. For example:

Letter:
  NOTE
:  George J. Mitchell to Robert Dole, 12 January 1993, George J. Mitchell Papers, George J. Mitchell
      Dept. of Special Collections & Archives, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, Me.
  BIBLIOG:  Mitchell, George J., Papers. George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections & Archives. 
      Bowdoin College Library.  Brunswick, Me. 

Memorandum:
  
NOTE:  Robert Edwards, Memorandum to Faculty, 3 January 1995, Robert H. Edwards Administrative
       Records, George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections & Archives, Bowdoin College Library,
       Brunswick, Me.
   BIBLIOG:  Edwards, Robert H., Administrative Records. George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections &
       Archives.  Bowdoin College Library.  Brunswick, Me.

Minutes:
  
NOTE:  Minutes of the Board of Trustees, 26 June 1925, Records of the Board of Trustees, George J.
       Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections & Archives, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, Me.
   BIBLIOG:  Bowdoin College. Records of the Board of Trustees. George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special
       Collections & Archives.  Bowdoin College Library.  Brunswick, Me.

Diary:
  
NOTE:  Eleanor Hyde Phillips, journal, 1890, p. 34, Thomas W. Hyde Family Papers, George J. Mitchell
       Dept. of Special Collections & Archives, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, Me.
   BIBLIOG:  Hyde, Thomas W., Family Papers.  George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections & Archives. 
       Bowdoin College Library.  Brunswick, Me.

Photograph:
  
NOTE:  Photograph of Kate Douglas Wiggin, n.d.  Nora Archibald Smith Family Papers, George J. Mitchell
       Dept. of Special Collections & Archives, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, Me.
   BIBLIOG:  Smith, Nora Archibald, Family Papers, George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections &
       Archives.  Bowdoin College Library.  Brunswick, Me.
   NOTE:  Photograph of Bowdoin College Baseball Team, 1937, Bowdoin Library Image Gallery,
      Bowdoin College Library, accessed July 12, 2010.http://coburn.bowdoin.edu:8180/luna/servlet/
      BOWDOINARC~17~17.
   BIBLIOG: Bowdoin Library Image Gallery. 
       Accessed July 12, 2010. http://coburn.bowdoin.edu:8180/luna/servlet/BOWDOINARC~17~17.

Sound recording:
   NOTE:  Martin Luther King, Jr., Speech and Discussion on Civil Rights, Spring Issues Conference,
       Bowdoin College, 6 May 1964, George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections & Archives, Bowdoin
       College Library, Brunswick, Me.
   BIBLIOG:  King, Martin Luther, Jr.  Speech and Discussion on Civil Rights, Spring Issues Conference,
       Bowdoin College. 6 May 1964. George J. Mitchell Dept. of Special Collections & Archives.  Bowdoin
       College Library.  Brunswick, Me.

George J. Mitchell Department of Special Collections & Archives · Staff · Hours
Bowdoin College Library, 3000 College Station, Brunswick, Maine 04011-8421 · scaref@bowdoin.edu · (207) 725-3288